Sunday, September 30, 2012

A Book of Genesis Timeline according to Judaism

For the LORD Almighty will care for his flock, the people of Judah, and make them like a proud horse in battle. From Judah will come the cornerstone, from them the tent peg, from them the battle bow, from them every ruler.

- Zechariah 10:3-4

The following timeline describes the people and events as recorded in the Book of Genesis as understood by Judaism. It was compiled utilizing information taken from three different Jewish websites: the Jewish Virtual, Being and All three of these websites were in basic agreement as to the dates, but some included specific events that others did not. Thus, this timeline is a summation of all three put together into one comprehensive list. All dates have been translated from the Hebrew calendar into what is now called BCE- Before the Common Era. To be specific, this particular timeline starts at 3760 BCE and ends at 1452 BCE. It begins with the creation of Adam and ends with the death of Joseph.

NOTE: All dates are tentative and come from 'Before the Common Era' usually designated as B.C.E. or BCE.


* Judaism - Timeline for the Book of Genesis *

3760 --- The LORD God creates Adam and Eve
3630 --- Birth of Seth
3525 --- Birth of Enosh
3435 --- Birth of Kenan
3365 --- Birth of Mahalalel
3300 --- Birth of Jared
3138 --- Birth of Enoch
3074 --- Birth of Methuselah
2886 --- Birth of Lamech
2831 --- Death of Adam, the first man
2773 --- Ascension of Enoch into Heaven
2718 --- Death of Seth
2704 --- Birth of Noah
2204 --- Vision of Noah. Noah begins construction on the Ark
2202 --- Birth of Shem, first-born son of Noah
2109 --- Death of Lamech
2104 --- Death of Methuselah
2102 --- The Great Flood begins
1882 --- Birth of Terah
1813 --- Birth of Abraham
1802 --- Birth of Sarah
1765 --- Attempted building of the Tower of Babel
1755 --- Death of Noah
1743 --- God's Covenant with Abraham begins
1737 --- Abraham leaves Haran with Sarah and Lot and migrates to Bethel in Canaan
1736 --- Abraham flees to Egypt due to famine, Melchizedek blesses Abraham
1726 --- Birth of Ishmael, son of Abraham and Hagar
1713 --- Birth of Isaac, Circumcision of the House of Abraham, Sodom & Gomorrah destroyed
1677 --- Near Sacrifice of Isaac, Death of Sarah, wife of Abraham
1672 --- Issac marries Rebecca
1653 --- Birth of Jacob and Esau
1638 --- Death of Abraham
1602 --- Death of Shem
1590 --- Isaac blesses Jacob, instead of his brother Esau
1589 --- Death of Ishmael
1580 --- Jacob begins working for his uncle Laban
1569 --- Jacob marries Leah and Rachel
1565 --- Birth of Levi, son of Jacob
1564 --- Birth of Judah, son of Jacob
1562 --- Birth of Joseph, son of Jacob
1560 --- Jacob and family return to Canaan, Jacob is renamed Israel, Jacob and Esau reconcile
1546 --- Joseph is sold into slavery by his brothers
1533 --- Death of Isaac, Death of Rachel, wife of Jacob
1532 --- Joseph becomes Viceroy of Egypt
1524 --- Seven Years of Famine begins
1523 --- Jacob and family join Joseph and settle in Egypt
1516 --- Seven Years of Famine ends
1505 --- Death of Jacob
1452 --- Death of Joseph

1) Timeline of Jewish History, Jewish Virtual Library
2) Jewish Timeline,
3) Jewish History Timeline Chart,

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus

Thursday, September 27, 2012

A Comprehensive List of the 613 Commandments of Judaism « The Judeo/Christian Tradition

Click on the following link---> A Comprehensive List of the 613 Commandments of Judaism « The Judeo/Christian Tradition

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Don't let the Talmud get your Goat!

This wild goat is heartless towards her young. When she crouches for delivery, she goes up to the top of a mountain so that the young shall fall down and be killed, and I prepare an eagle to catch it in his wings and set it before her, and if he were one second too soon or too late it would be killed.

- Babylonian Talmud, Baba Bathra 16b

What does the Jewish Midrash Really say about the Gentiles? - Religious Education Forum

Click on the following link here---> What does the Jewish Midrash Really say about the Gentiles? - Religious Education Forum

Sunday, September 23, 2012

Liar, Denier! The Judeo/Christian Tradition and those who say it does not exist


Facts are stubborn things; and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passion, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence.
 - John Adams

It's been a long time since I've been a child, and because I don't have any children of my own, I had almost forgotten how children really were sometimes, and still are, even today. I was abruptly reminded of it when, after doing some preliminary research on the Judeo/Christian Tradition, I suddenly rediscovered what it was like when children decide to be total brats about something and the things they will say and do while they are still in full 'total brat' mode. It's truly something to behold, let me tell you. It's even worse when fully-grown adults, whether they are tenured University professors or published authors, suddenly decide to loudly and publicly act in an infantile manner, by regressing back to childhood and acting in exactly the same manner as 'total brats' would.

Anyway, I'll try to keep this post short and to the point by simply reminding my fellow adults about a few of the 'total brat' strategies I have just witnessed within the past few days. For starters, when 'total brats' really, really don't like something they will stubbornly and irrationally deny that it exists. Most amazing is the specific words they will use as a part of their denial such as: 'There's no such thing as (fill in blank)' or 'I don't believe in (fill in blank)'. Now, as I was saying before, I ran directly into this child-like refusal of accept reality while looking up sources and references to the Judeo/Christian tradition. After perusing the numerous Dictionary definitions and Encyclopedia entries, all of which had the exact same title 'Judeo-Christian Tradition'. I eventually ran into a whole slew of malcontents who apparently had felt the overwhelming desire to deny reality, just like child who decides to act like a 'total brat'. Never mind that professional companies and corporations have published reference books that include the very words 'Judeo-Christian Tradition', or that there are literally dozens upon dozens of Newspaper and Magazine articles, essays, and op/eds which have the term 'Judeo-Christian Tradition' as a part of their titles or headlines, because for the 'total brat' this isn't really proof that there really is such a thing. When the 'total brat' decides something does not exist, then no matter what happens, it simply does not exist. What follows is a summary of the 'total brat' tactics that certain fully-grown adults have used in their effort to deny the existence of something they obviously do not like at all, namely the 'Judeo-Christian Tradition'. Included below is a two-part summary of clearly absurd denials in the existence of a Dictionary defined, Encyclopedia explained, phrase in the English language commonly known as the Judeo/Christian Tradition:

Denial of Reality #1: There is NO Judeo/Christian Tradition

Jacob Neusner: Theologically and historically, there is NO such thing as the Judeo-Christian tradition.

Gary North: There is NO Judeo-Christian tradition. There never was one.

Newsweek Magazine: Politicians appeal to a Judeo-Christian tradition, but religious scholars say it NO longer exists.

New Dawn Magazine: Reviewing the last two thousand years of Western Christian history there is really NO evidence of a Judeo-Christian tradition.


Denial of Reality #2: The Judeo/Christian Tradition is a Myth

Jacob Neusner:
There is no...Judeo-Christian tradition. It's a secular Myth favored by people who are not really believers themselves.

Newsweek Magazine: For scholars of American religion...the idea of a single Judeo-Christian tradition is a made-in-America Myth that many of them no longer regard as valid.

Stephen M. Feldman: The Myth of the Judeo-Christian tradition insidiously obscures the real and significant differences between Judaism and Christianity

Gary North: There is no Judeo-Christian tradition...The whole concept is Mythical.

Clearly, the individuals and publications cited above have a serious problem with this descriptive term 'Judeo-Christian Tradition'. Yes, one could surmise that it is simply another example of standard, run-of-the-mill Jew-hatred, but that cannot explain why several obviously Jewish critics have joined with their Gentile comrades in mutually despising the historical, actual, and factual reality of this designation. Basically, a very small amount of Jews who don't like Christianity (or Christians), and Christians who don't like Judaism (or Jews), have decided to vent their anger and frustration at a particular phrase, a set of words that neither thinks, nor feels, nor does. It's just a word, for Gosh sakes! Or actually, two words (Judeo/Christian Tradition), or even three if you count 'the' as well (The Judeo/Christian Tradition). In the end, there is little that others can do when adults, like 'total brat' children, insist upon denying reality over and over again until they get what they want. However, there is a word for what they have been doing, and continue to do- it's called lying. And even 'total brats' should never be allowed to lie for very long.

The ACTUAL Judeo/Christian Tradition

ACTUAL DESIGNATION: The Judeo-Christian (

ACTUAL USE: The phrase 'Judeo-Christian' nevertheless a common term in American cultural and political rhetoric. (Judeo-Christian, Wikipedia)

ACTUAL EXISTENCE: The Judeo-Christian tradition is, most certainly, not just a myth in colloquial terms meaning a falsehood (historical or not), but a powerful and expedient religious posture, valid for most people here and now, and bearing witness to a continued symbolic relationship with very real meaningfulness. (Edward Kaplan, Commentary Magazine, 1970)

There's more than sufficient common ground between Judaism and Christianity to justify the idea of a Judeo-Christian tradition. (Mark Silk,

Saturday, September 22, 2012

The Global Power of Ten Hebrew Letters

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

- John 1:1
The Judeo/Christian Ten Commandments
I. You will not worship any god except the LORD your God (יהוה)   
II. You will not use the name of the LORD your God in vain.   
III. You will not profane the Sabbath day, but keep it holy.   
IV. You will not dishonor either your father or your mother.   
V. You will not kill.   
VI. You will not commit adultery.   
VII. You will not steal.   
VIII. You will not lie.   
IX. You will not envy another man's wife.  
X. You will not envy another man's property.




The Ten Commandments are not multiple choice...

- Anonymous (1900-2000 A.D.)


The Religion of Christianity and the Commandments
If you want to enter life, keep the Commandments...You shall not murder, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not steal, you shall not give false testimony, honor your father and mother, and love your neighbor as yourself.
- Matthew 19:17-19
You know the Commandments: ‘You shall not murder, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not steal, you shall not give false testimony, you shall not defraud, honor your father and mother.’
- Mark 10:18-19
You know the Commandments: ‘You shall not commit adultery, you shall not murder, you shall not steal, you shall not give false testimony, honor your father and mother.'
- Luke 18:19-21



Sometime during the Maccabean period (the second century BC), the letters of the alphabet began to represent numbers, such as the first ten letters of the Hebrew alphabet began to signify numbers one through ten, as seen in the presentation of the Ten Commandments.

The Ten Commandments and the Hebrew Alphabet
I. א   
II. ב   
III. ג   
IV. ד   
V. ה   
VI. ז   
VII. ו   
VIII. ח   
IX. ט   
X. י

- Starting from the top, then down to the bottom, these 10 letters also happen to be the first 10 letters in the official Hebrew alphabet. This is no mere coincidence.
- When written in English, the words for the first 10 Hebrew letters are spelled as follows- Aleph, Beth, Gimel, Dalet, Hey, Vav, Zayin, Het, Tet, and Yod.      
- According to ancient Jewish legend, the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet, called 'Aleph', was also chosen by God to be the first letter of the Ten Commandments.due to its humble acceptance of God's wisdom and authority.    - Rabbi Mendel Torum has claimed that, even though 'Aleph', the first letter of the entire Ten Commandments, has a completely silent pronunciation, every Israelite gathered around the foot of Mt. Sinai, clearly heard it anyway because it had been spoken by God Himself.
- In the art of Gematria, a somewhat respectable form of Numerology, these letters specifically correspond to the mathematical numbers one (1) through ten (10) and are arranged in perfect chronological order as can be seen in both Exodus and Deuteronomy.   
- Quite a few Rabbis, and other Jewish religious authorities, have pointed out the incredibly powerful influence these 10 letters have exerted upon the entire Hebrew language, including both the written and spoken words of literally every Biblical prophet who came after Moses.   - Specialized Jewish art, jewelry, and other collectibles, will often use this 10-letter version of the Ten Commandments.
- More than a few synagogues, especially in the United States, have decorations which depict the 10-letter form of the Ten Commandments.   
- In a ruling called Ke’mo Ha-shachar (Ayin 23), the Orthodox rabbinical authorities banned any display of the Ten Commandment tablets including those which 'show the first ten letters of the Hebrew alphabet.'


References for 10 Hebrew Letters = 10 Commandments
A popular image of...the Ten Commandments are represented by the first ten letters of the Hebrew alphabet, which in Hebrew usage may be used interchangeably with the numbers 1-10.
- Tablets of Stone, Wikipedia
The relation between position and meaning is easily discerned for the first ten letters since they are linked with fundamental Biblical sequences like the Ten Commandments, the Seven Days of Creation, and the Seven Seals of Revelation.

- The Divine Design of the Hebrew Alphabet (Bible Wheel Book, Ch. 7),
Many synagogues continue to have the image of the Ten Commandments prominently displayed, and many Judaica websites that sell Torah covers feature a design with the commandments sewn on, usually represented by the first 10 letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
- Putting the Ten Commandments on display, by Edmon J. Rodman, Jewish Telegraph Agency,

An old U.S.Air Force-issued prayer shawl (tallit)...shows the old symbol for military Jewish chaplains (two tablets of the Ten Commandments, using Roman numerals to indicate the commandments), stopped by a six-pointed Star of David. The modern version of the Jewish Chaplain symbol replaces the Roman numerals with the first ten letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

 - USAF Jewish Chaplain prayer shawl, Wikipedia


The Tree of the Sephiroth may be considered an invaluable compendium of the secret philosophy which originally was the spirit and soul of Chasidism...The Sephirothic Tree consists of ten globes of luminous splendor arranged in three vertical columns and connected by 22 channels or paths. The ten globes are called the Sephiroth and to them are assigned the numbers 1 to 10. The mediæval Qabbalists also assigned one of the Ten Commandments and a tenth part of the Lord's Prayer in sequential order to each of the ten Sephiroth.

- The Tree of the Sephiroth,. by Manly P. Hall (1928),

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

Friday, September 21, 2012

Introduction to the Pope's 'Jewish' Star on Top of His Head


Understanding the Hexagram, the Star of Creation, the Star of David, the Seal of Solomon, and how they Differ

Many works on Christian iconography say that the six-pointed star is the Creator's Star or Star of Creation. Its six points stand for the six days of creation, and also represent the six attributes of God: power, wisdom, majesty, love, mercy and justice...The star also appears in decoration in St Peter's basilica and in many gothic churches.

- Pope Benedict XVI Forum, Papal clothing and liturgical practices,

As can be seen in the larger version of this iconographic square, the photograph at the top left shows Pope Benedict XVI wearing a traditional-looking hat, also known as a Papal mitre. Notice this head-piece features a Six-Pointed Star of David woven directly into the gold-colored fabric of the hat (mitre) itself. For those who may be surprised or even astonished at this public display of the 'Jewish' Star, should realize that the Pope first starting wearing this particular head-piece well over a year ago. Therefore this is already old news at best. At the time, and ever since, some rather inflammatory opinions about this Papal hexagram have been posted online, most of them filled with fear, anger, and even hatred towards the Pope, the Catholic Church, the Jews and even the symbol itself (as if it had a mind of its own). Tragically, there seems to be an almost total lack of comment and opinion from those who actually approve, or even applaud, the new Star of David on top of Benedict's head. To really understand the extreme contrast of love and hate this particular Papal symbol has stirred up, two distinctly different quotes from internet sources has been included below. Needless to say, the grammar shown in the love, is far better than the hysterical scrawl found in the hate:

HATE QUOTE - The pictures presented of Rome's current Pope Benedict XVI (German Joseph Ratzinger) wearing his golden mitre displaying the Six-pointed Stars, link the false Babylonian religion of Roman Catholicism practiced by Papal Rome, with the false Babylonian religion of Freemasonry...[The] Occultic, Masonic Six-pointed Stars on Golden Mitre of Satan's Anti-Christ Roman Catholic Pope...connects Papal Rome with Freemasonry with Masonic Zionist "Israel" - HATE UNQUOTE

- News (2011 +), Columbia Christians for Life,

LOVE QUOTE - The Pope looks so dignified. I love the Stars of David too. Not many people know that it is Christian in origin. The Jewish symbol until probably the 3rd century was the menorah, not the Star. The original symbol for Christianity was a mixture of a fish, Star of David, a menorah. - LOVE UNQUOTE

- The Pope Benedict XVI Forum, Papal clothing and liturgical practices,

A brief bout of research on the internet reveals an astonishing array of negativity about Pope Benedict XVI's so-called 'sudden' and 'inappropriate' display of one of the modern symbols connoting Judaism. Far too many Christians have unfortunately assumed that this Star is a thoroughly Jewish emblem, and a symbol representing Judaism alone. Unfortunately, it seems the vast majority of Catholics (and Protestants) still fail to realize the historical truth about the matter. In reality, the Roman Catholic Church has been using the Star of David in its vast array of Christian symbolism for many centuries. So has the Eastern Orthodox Church as well. This is not to say that the Star of David has ever been a major ikon of the Church like the Cross for example, but it has never been designated as a purely, exclusively Jewish symbol- thus becoming strictly off-limits for Christian use. As one source puts it succinctly:

It so happens that during the Middle Ages, the 'Star of David' was frequently found on churches (such as Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome) and even in mosques, but was absent in synagogues. It was also conspicuously absent as a symbol in Jewish books and on ritual objects.

- Star of David or Star of Goloka?, by Swami B. G. Narasingha.

Indeed, there are literally dozens of Catholic Churches around the world, including the main Cathedral in Mazatlan, Mexico, which have deliberately utilized the Star of David as a part of the their overall Christian architecture. Not only that, but a quick look at the internet shows there to be at least six sites dedicated to Christian symbols which list the six-pointed star as yet another type of authentic Christian symbolism. Apparently, the Church has tended not to refer to the hexagram as the Star of David (Magen David in Hebrew), which historically has been more of a Jewish designation. Instead, Christian authorities have called it the Star of Creation, Star of the Creator, or the Creator's star. Now for those Christian believers who may still have any doubts whatsoever about the six-pointed Star of David should be more than reassured by the historical facts themselves. The Star of Creation, as the Church has designated it, really was, still is, and will continue to be, an genuine Christian symbol. Any stubborn skeptic should feel free to check out the internet for even further proof. In fact, after a very brief time period spent searching for any Christian use of the hexagram, the results are definitive. As it turns out, there happen to be at least six separate listings of Christian symbols and/or symbolism which include the Star of David (Star of Creation, Six-pointed Star, etc) in their collection without any reservation. These particular listings, along with their subsequent definitions and explanations, can be seen as follows:

1) STAR OF DAVID: The Star of David or the Creator's Star. The six points represent six aspects of God: love, mercy, wisdom, majesty, power, and justice. In this form, the two triangles represent the Trinity.

- Star of David, Christian Symbols,

2) THE STAR OF CREATION (Star of David) - The six-pointed star is several symbols in one. The star is made up of two triangles, each representing the Trinity. The six-sided star they form is a symbol of creation. Thus the symbol means that the Godhead, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, were all a part of the creation of the world.

- The Star of Creation,

3) Six-pointed Star: Route six corners correspond to the six days of creation. These are also the six attributes of God: love, power, wisdom, mercy, justice and majesty. It is also known as Star of David in Judaism. Six-pointed star - a Christian symbol

- Christianity, Religious Symbols and their Meanings,

4) Six pointed stars symbolize Israel and is called the Star of David. It represents the six attributes of God - power, wisdom, majesty, love, mercy and justice.

- Stars as Christian Symbols,

5) Six Pointed Star: Star of Creation, Star of David. Although ancient and symbolizing the six days of creation, best known in modern times as a symbol of Judaism.

- Christian Symbols, Symbols,

6) Six-Pointed Star: Stars with six points have a deep ancient history that has been connected to many other religions with a range of meanings. In regards to Christianity, the star with six points is known as the Creator's Star (or the Star of Creation). Each of the points represents the six days of creation, and is also representative of six attributes associated with God;- love, mercy, power, wisdom, majesty, and justice. The six-pointed star is also a symbol of Judaism in modern-day Israel, which is called the Star of David.

- Symbolism of Stars in Christianity, by Yona Williams,
As seen through a careful inspection of the Pope's photograph, the typically flat-looking triangles which traditionally make up a Star of David differ somewhat from the actual symbol seen atop the Papal ceremonial head-dress (mitre). Looking closely enough, one can see that the golden Star's triangular lines appear as if they were interwoven on top of, and beneath, each other in a three-dimensional representation of this six-pointed geometric polygon (also called a hexagram). According to legend, King Solomon supposedly took the rather simple, two-dimensional Star of David he inherited from his Royal father and managed to improve upon it by having the two opposite triangles appear as if they were interwoven with one another. A rather interesting take on the very real differences between the Star of David and the Seal of Solomon reads as follows:

Uniting the Water Triangle [facing downwards] with the Fire Triangle [facing upwards], the Hexagram is formed. It forms a six pointed star also known as the Seal of Solomon. This symbol is a [different type of] Star of David, the national symbol of Israel (God's chosen nation). The difference between the Star of David and the seal [of Solomon] is the triangles which make up the seal [Solomon] interlock and the two triangles of the Star of David lie flat against each other.

- Hexagram,

The traditional understanding that the Star of David and the Seal of Solomon have fundamental differences in both their origins and visual appearances, seems to have been nearly lost in modern times. What's most frustrating is that more a few modern dictionaries have gotten the essential differences between these two distinct types of hexagrams completely wrong, thus misleading everybody. So, readers should take careful note right now that the symbol seen on top of the Pope's head is, to be completely accurate, not a Star of David, but a Seal of Solomon instead. The biggest visual clue is the way that the Seal of Solomon's triangular lines look like they are either above or beneath one another without ever truly intersecting. Apparently, this was never the case with the Star of David. To be specific, King David used the symbol as a short form of his written signature and as a battle insignia painted on the shields of his fellow Israelite soldiers. In both cases, the iconographic complexity seen in the Seal of Solomon was never really needed and therefore never developed. In contrast, the Seal of Solomon was thought to have been an actual Royal Seal used throughout King Solomon's reign, a hand-held device which stamped an image upon either a puddle of wax, or clay, or even a form of paper made with animal skins. These Seals were usually custom-made by professional artists and were thus far more complex in appearance than any written signature or hand-drawn war emblem. In truth, one could say that both symbols were simply different versions of the Star of David. However, the Seal of Solomon has always been depicted with three-dimensional, interwoven (or interlaced) triangles. It is most unfortunate that literally no one these days really knows, or even cares, about what a Seal of Solomon actually is anyway. However, for the sake of precision, one should define the Star of David as being comprised of OVERLAPPING triangles, just as the Seal of Solomon (Solomon's Seal)should always have the appearance of INTERLACED (or INTERWOVEN) triangles instead. The actual, and factually correct, dictionary definitions of these two emblems are listed below:

(Star of David) n. - A symbol consisting of two OVERLAPPED equilateral triangles forming a star with six points, used as a symbol of Judaism. It is also called Magen David, Mogen David, and Shield of David, and is shaped identically to the hexagram and Solomon's seal. It is used on the flag of the modern state of Israel.

- Collaborative International Dictionary of English,

(Solomon's Seal) n. - A mystic symbol consisting of two INTERLACED triangles forming a star with six points, often with one triangle dark and one light, symbolic of the union of soul and body. It is shaped identically to the hexagram and Star of David, distinguished only in its usage.

- Collaborative International Dictionary of English,

Among the various myths and legends concerning this age-old Biblical symbol, two of them stand out in particular. The first one concerns the reasons behind why the hexagram was ever called a star (or shield), while the second story explains the intricate three-dimensional pattern seen on the Seal of Solomon, but usually never with the Star of David. Now as to why the hexagram was ever called a Star, the main reason should be quite obvious to most observers. As nearly everybody would agree, the six-pointed shape itself bear a striking visual resemblance to the twinkling effect one experiences when looking directly at either a star, or the sun, through a somewhat hazy atmosphere.

Twinkle (Upward Triangle), Twinkle (Downward Triangle) little star, how I wonder what you are (Star of David). Up above the world so high (Upward Triangle), like a diamond in the sky (Downward Triangle)...

- An interpretation of the song 'Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star'

There is also a Biblical reason why the hexagram has been called a star and it concerns a certain, obscure prophecy found in the Book of Numbers. Keeping in mind that this was written long before King David was ever born, the relevant verse talks about an unknown future leader of Israel who will rise to power and go on to defeat the traditional enemies of the Israelites- the Moabites for example. This future hero is metaphorically described as 'a Star' which 'shall come forth from Jacob', obviously meaning a yet-to-born descendant from the one of the twelve tribes of Israel. Because of the importance of the Davidic Kingdom, quite a few scholars claim this passage from Numbers should be seen as a direct reference to the later military success and subsequent rule of King David. Indeed, David official founding of the Kingdom of Israel in Jerusalem was the first event of extreme significance which had occurred in Israel since the time period recorded in the Book of Numbers. Yet the question remains as to why the hexagram, rather than David himself, is the 'Star' mentioned in Scriptures. The best, and probably only correct answer to this is that the original Star of David served as his personalized signature- comprised of two triangular Hebrew letters written on top of each other with one of them turned upside down. In short, the hexagram was simply a uniquely clever way David wrote the first and last initials to his own name. Therefore, the claim that the six-pointed hexagram used for David's name was also a perfect symbolic representation of the Biblically prophesied 'Star' of 'Jacob' happens to be fairly logical, at least in a metaphorical sense. Also, because the Bible just so happens to be filled to the brim with metaphors, this legendary explanation may indeed be the real truth behind the origins of the six-pointed Star.

STAR OF DAVID: I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near. A STAR shall come forth from Jacob. A scepter shall rise from Israel and shall crush the corners of Moab, and destroy all the sons of Sheth.
- Numbers 24:17

SEAL OF SOLOMON: Place me like a SEAL upon your heart, like a SEAL on your arm. For love is as strong as death, its jealousy unyielding as the grave. It burns like blazing fire, like a mighty flame.

- Song of Solomon 8:6
Now it is time to turn to the Judeo/Christian legends surrounding the Seal of Solomon and the reason behind the change in name. First, as previously mentioned, the more complex looking six-pointed star with interwoven triangles was Solomon's way of improving upon his father David's original design for their family coat-of-arms. This three-dimensional hexagram was also a far more appropriate insignia for a King of Israel and his Royal family to have as their personal seal. Even so, there was also a deeper, more profound reason behind the interwoven appearance of the Seal of Solomon's two interlaced triangles. Apparently, this specific design served as a visual talisman providing spiritual protection and control against the forces of evil. Not only was the Seal thought to ward against, or scare off, demons and other evil spirits, it also helped to trap, contain, and control them- thus rendering them harmless to mere mortals. To truly understand how and why this worked, notice how the Seal's interlaced lines have an eerie, maze-like appearance to them, going back and forth, above and behind each other, in a ceaseless, never-ending pattern. This infinite sense of complexity was said to cause disorientation and utter confusion in any demon who dared to look directly at the symbol. More than two thousand years later, the Medieval Christians (as well as Jews) also put their trust in the Seal of Solomon, believing it provided ample protection from the forces of darkness. Three different online sources confirm the 'magical' history of this symbol:

The hexagram, as the Seal of Solomon, is generally...believed to have protective powers and magical properties...[It] has a long history of providing protection from demons and evil spirits. In some magical practices, it is associated with exorcisms.

- Who Knew Two Triangles Could Do So Much?: The Hexagram, by Rebecca,

The Seal of Solomon dates back to the Bronze Ages and is a powerful symbol with many mystical and magickal qualities...the Seal of Solomon is believed to offer protection against both enemies and the evil eye, control spirits, and bring good luck in all aspects of life.

- Seal of Solomon, Amulet Power,

In the middle Ages it was common to find amulets and talismans which reproduced the Seal of Solomon...It was believed that these magic drawings protected the wearer from the influence of demons and evil spirits, or just bad luck. It was also common to record the seal on a frame or lintel of the entrance door to homes...with the same protective character against the spirits or to potential fires.

- The Hexagram, Star of David or Seal of Solomon,

One might apt to conclude that both the form and function of the Seal of Solomon were in perfectly alignment, thus explaining the legendary spiritual powers this symbol was believed to possess. These days, Christians (and Jews) are free to choose to believe or disbelieve in its significance, yet even today, in the 21st century, the Seal's actual power over the minds of men (and women) has yet to disappear completely. Indeed, look at the dozens and dozens, perhaps even hundreds, if not thousands, of modern, educated adults who still use this symbol to practice magic and/or witchcraft. Even if one doesn't believe in any magic whatsoever, there still has to be a reason why so many fellow humans have such an on-going obsession with this one particular geometric shape. as if by its very appearance the supernatural will then become possible. A more balanced view concerning the power of the Star of David/Seal of Solomon can be found in the Catholic Church of today. Mentioning the Star of David by name, it reads as follows:

The magi's coming to Jerusalem in order to pay homage to the king of the Jews shows that they seek in Israel, in the messianic light of the STAR OF DAVID, the one who will be king of the nations. Their coming means that pagans can discover Jesus and worship him as Son of God and Savior of the world only by turning towards the Jews and receiving from them the messianic promise as contained in the Old Testament.

- Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church

In conclusion, the actual history of the hexagram in terms of the Judeo/Christian tradition indicates that Pope Benedict XVI's recent public display of the symbol is nothing new at all. In addition, the Pope's implied acceptance and approval of the Star of David/Seal of Solomon appears to be in complete agreement with a fairly long and extensive history of Christian use. Hopefully, Christian respect and admiration for this particular emblem will extend itself into an open friendliness, rather than hostility, towards those who still practice and believe in Judaism, This seems to be the general attitude of today's Catholic Church and the Pope's recent appearance with a Star of David on top of his head is simply further proof that times have changed for the better.


TOP LEFT: A close-up picture of Pope Benedict XVI's Papal hat known as a mitre. The six-pointed hexagram located in the front of the head-piece appears to be a Seal of Solomon, rather than a Star of David. The Church has also tended to refer to most any hexagram as a Star of Creation, or Creator's Star. Historically however, only the Seal of Solomon had triangular lines which were interwoven (or interlaced) with one another.

TOP RIGHT: A side by side metaphorical modern history of the Jewish people. From the horrors of Nazi Germany in the 1940s to the founding of Israel in 1948, this 3,000 year journey of the Jewish people has yet to end. Once again, their enemies have been destroyed as they have moved onward and forward, in a noble effort to live on and prosper. The yellow star of David on the left side has the German word Jude (Jew in English) written in the center. Numerous forms of colored badges were used by the Nazis, but the six-pointed Stars of David identifying Jews have had the most historical repercussions so far- as in the slogan- 'Never again'. The blue Star of David on the right side is an exact replica, including the exact color, of the Davidic Star found upon the official, national flag of Israel. In Israel today, this symbol is nearly always referred to as a Magen David (Shield of David in English).

BOTTOM LEFT: These two black hexagrams in a all-white background are basic representations of a Star of David, seen on the left side, and a Seal of Solomon, seen on the right. A close enough examination between the two symbols clearly show the three-dimensional qualities of the Seal of Solomon on the right. This optical illusion of interwoven triangular lines occurs simply because of the way it has been drawn. Although the viewer may perceive depth when looking at the Seal, the reality remains that this symbol is just as flat as the Star of David pictured on the left.

BOTTOM RIGHT: A six-pointed hexagram carved upon one of the walls of St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the official capital of the Roman Catholic Church. A specifically Christian hexagram is most commonly known as a Star of Creation, or Creator's Star. A close-up inspection of this symbol reveals that, just like the one on top of the Pope's head, this star also has the appearance of interwoven (or interlaced) triangular lines. Thus, the proper term for this particular hexagram would be the Seal of Solomon, rather than the Star of David, a term which the Israelis themselves never use. 

Thursday, September 20, 2012

The Five Questions which Prove that President Obama is not a Muslim

Our law is by definition a codification of morality, much of it grounded in the Judeo/Christian Tradition.

- Barack Obama

NOTE: One must acknowledge that President Obama uses the word Judeo (meaning Judaism) and Christian (meaning Christianity), but he specifically leaves out the word ‘Muslim ‘and/or ‘Islamic’. Doesn’t sound like something a Muslim would ever say or believe


QUESTION #1) If Obama was really Muslim, why would a Jewish journalist ever write an entire essay calling him ‘the first Jewish President’???

I’d say, probably, intellectually I’ve drawn as much from Judaism as any other faith.
- President Barack Obama

QUESTION #2) Would an actual Muslim believer in Allah every say Judaism was one of his major intellectual influence???

QUESTION #3) Would any genuine Islamic believer ever pray at the Western Wall???

QUESTION #4) Would a loyal follower of the Prophet Mohammad ever celebrate Hanukkah???

QUESTION #5) Instead of accusing Obama of being Muslim, how come no one claims he is a secret Jew???

The answer to all of the above questions is because Barack Obama is black. Literally every single person who calls Obama a Muslim is white, and most probably racist, yet not completely racist. Thus, they are too cowardly to say the ‘N’ word (the racist derivative of Negro) out loud or in public, so now they say the ‘M’ word (Muslim, an adherent to Islam) instead, thereby getting away with their ignorant, bigoted, hate-mongering yet again.

Jesus Christ Really, Really Did Descend into Hell

He descended into Hell....

- Nicene Creed (451 A.D.)

+ Jesus Christ Really, Really Did Descend into Hell +

There came a man, whose appearance was that of a thief, carrying a cross upon his shoulder, shouting from the outside of the door of Hell, saying: 'Open up so that I may come in.' And Satan, opening up to him a little, brought the man inside into his dwelling, and again shut the door behind him. And all the Saints saw him most clearly and said to him: 'Your appearance is that of a robber. Tell us what it is that you carry on your back.' The answered with humility: 'Truly I was a thief in all ways; but the Jews hung me up on a cross, along with my Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father most high. I have now come proclaiming Him. He indeed is coming right behind me.'

- Gospel of Nicodemus

Near the end of every Sunday Mass, Roman Catholics join together to recite the exact words of what's been called either the Nicene Creed, or the extremely similar Apostles' Creed. They have been during this for nearly 1,700 years. Many other Christian sects do the same. One of the more frightening verses concerning Jesus in this age-old Creed states quite bluntly: 'He descended into Hell.' Over the centuries, many believers have probably wondered what exactly does this really mean. Did Jesus Christ really descend into Hell? What happened when He was down there? How did He manage to escape? Why did He even need to go to such a terrible place?

The answers to all these questions can be found in the oft-neglected Christian doctrine known as the Harrowing of Hell. As the basic story-line goes, the LORD Jesus Christ died on the Cross only to find Himself leading an entire army of Angels down the treacherous slopes of Hell. After travelling further and further down into the darkness of this wicked kingdom, both He and his Angelic forces finally came to the heavily-guarded fortress where the self-appointed ruler of the dead, a Pagan god called Hades, resided. While Jesus laid seige to this foul fortress, the ancient serpent known as Satan, the Devil found himself trying to reassure the Pagan ruler of this dark kingdom that there was nothing to fear.

Posted Image

Shortly after their initial assault, the Divine expedition led by Christ finally manages to tear down and smash the Gates of Hell into a thousand pieces. The LORD Jesus then charges through the wreckage in order to capture and subdue two of the most evil beings ever known, namely the Pagan god of the dead Hades and his diabolical side-kick Satan. Here are the essential details of this epic battle which immediately followed the death of Jesus Christ on the Cross:

+ The Shattering of the Gates of Hell: And, behold, suddenly Hades trembled, and the gates of Heall and its bolts were shattered. The iron bars were broken and fell to the ground, and everything was laid open. And Satan remained in the midst, and stood confounded and downcast, bound with fetters on his feet. (Gospel of Nicodemus 8)

+ The Defeat of Satan: The Lord Jesus Christ...carrying a chain in His hand, bound Satan by the neck, tying his hands behind him. He then cast Satan into Hell, and placed His holy foot on his throat, saying: 'Through all ages you have done many evils; you have not rested. Today I condemn you to everlasting fire.' (Gospel of Nicodemus 8)

+ The Damnation of Hades: The Hades was suddenly summoned and Jesus commanded him saying: 'Take this most wicked and impious one, and keep him even unto that day in which I shall command you.' And so Hades, as soon as he received Satan, was plunged under the feet of the Lord...into the depth of the abyss. (Gospel of Nicodemus 8)

+ The Conquest of the Underworld: Then the Saviour, inquiring thoroughly about all, seized the underground kingdom of Hades, immediately threw some down into Hell, and led some with Him to Heaven...And the Lord set His cross in the midst of Hades, which is the sign of victory, and which will remain unto eternity. (Gospel of Nicodemus 9-10)

+ The Ascent into Heaven: Then we all went forth to Heaven along with the Lord, leaving Satan and Hades in Hell. (Gospel of Nicodemus 10)

After eventually coming face to face with Hell's somewhat surprised and frightened ruler godKing Hades, Jesus Christ presses on to attack His traditional age-old foe the Devil named Satan. When they finally meet, Jesus quickly binds the adversary with a chain He had benn carrying with Him, then tosses His ancient enemy down onto the ground on his back. Having been subdued beneath the mighty feet of Christ, Satan ends up being cast even further down into the burning depths of Tartarus. This particular abode also happens to be the lowest level of Hell set aside for its most dangerous inhabitants- a fitting end for Satan. After having thoroughly defeating Satan, Jesus summons King Hades to appear before Him once again. He then orders this so-called Greco-Roman deity to take charge over his evil companion Satan as they are both officially banished into eternal exile- on a journey down into a bottomless pit of eternal damnation.

Posted Image

Finally, Jesus Christ proceeds to cast judgment upon all the countless number of Hell's deceased inhabitants, condemning some and redeeming many others until a perfect and eternal justice has been achieved. Whether this took a day, or a thousand years, is a question mere mortals have yet to answer. Making sure to gather together all of His fellow Saints and Angels, the only Son of God finally decides to leave a Sign of the Cross behind as both a monument to His Divine love and mercy, and as a warning to any stray forces of darkness, still haunting the depths of the Underworld. Jesus Christ then leaves this dark, foreboding world of the dead and ascends upwards into Heaven where He has been destined to rule for all eternity.

Herein lies the story of what really happened to Jesus the very moment after giving up the ghost during His crucifixion at Golgotha, just outside of Jerusalem. Indeed, it must be stated loudly and clearly that Jesus Christ really did die and really did descend into Hell nearly 2,000 years ago, thus achieving the eternal salvation of all mankind, One can sympathize with the fact this ancient Christian tale may leave some readers wishing, hoping, waiting for more or expecting it to contain additional drama and excitement. Suffice it to say that, even though the story of Christ's descent into Hell may seem too simple, like a child's fairy tale or nursery rhyme, for God-fearing Christians it remains the truest story ever told.

Wednesday, September 19, 2012

Mt. Olympus, the Devil's Mountain

The devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor.

- Matthew 4:8

The devil led him up to a high place and showed him in an instant all the kingdoms of the world.

- Luke 4:5

The Official Logo of the Judeo/Christian Tradition

+ The Apocalypse of Mt. Olympus +

Many Judeo-Christian believers seem unfamiliar with the fact that Mt. Olympus, the so-called abode of the Greco-Roman gods, is specifically mentioned at least four times in the Gospels. For starters, Jesus Christ refers to it directly in both Matthew and Mark. By a careful analysis of His exact words, it should become more and more obvious that Jesus Christ, like most devout Jews during His time period, looked upon Mt. Olympus as the supernatural adversary of Mt. Sinai, a threat to Jews which, like a vampire, seemed to lurk just beyond the horizon. Because of their extended interaction with Paganism, they knew knew full well about the Greco-Roman legends surrounding this 'Heavenly' mountain. Indeed, since the time the Maccabees revolted against the Greek empire 150 years previously, numerous religious Jews had become somewhat familar with the story behind Mt. Olympus and the 'supernatural' power of their idolatrous Pagan religion. The diametric opposition of Jesus Christ and the Jews to Greco-Roman Paganism can be listed as follows:

A Tale of Two Mountains
MOUNTAIN: Mt. Olympus, Mt. Sinai
NATION: Empire, Kingdom
CAPITAL: Rome, Jerusalem
RELIGION: Paganism, Monotheism
FATHER GOD: Zeus/Jupiter, LORD God of Israel
SON OF GOD: Apollo, Jesus Christ
TWELVE: 12 gods of Rome, 12 Tribes of Israel
MORALITY: Sexual Perversion, Heterosexual Monogamy
ETHICS: Power and Might, Justice and Mercy

One of the times Mt. Olympus is mentioned in the Gospels occurs during Jesus Christ's wandering in the desert when he fasted for 40 days and 40 nights, By doing this, He brought himself closer to the holiness that had been established long ago by Moses. Just like Jesus, Moses too had fasted for 40 days in a row during the Revelation atop Mt. Sinai when God in Heaven had come down to Earth to give the Law to the 12 Tribes of Israel. However, after having fasted for so long, Jesus Christ did not encounter the God of Israel like Mose had done. Instead, He met the Devil, who tempted Him three different times. At one point, the Devil takes him to the highest mountain in the world to show him all the nations on Earth. That mountain was none other than Mt. Olympus and the Devil was none other than the Greco-Roman god Zeus/Jupiter or perhaps his son Apollo. The exact passages mentioning Christ's visit to Mt. Olympus reads as follows: 

Again, the devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor. 'All this I will give you,' he said, 'if you will bow down and worship me.' Jesus said to him, “Away from me, Satan! For it is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God, and serve him alone.'" Then the devil left him, and angels came and attended him.

- Matthew 4:8-11

The devil led him up to a high place and showed him in an instant all the kingdoms of the world. And he said to him, 'I will give you all their authority and splendor; it has been given to me, and I can give it to anyone I want to. If you worship me, it will all be yours.' Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God and serve him only.’”

- Luke 4:5-8

Some may object to this interpretation and contend that the 'very high mountain' was some other mountain and not Mt. Olympus specifically. This may well be true, but remains unlikely for several reasons. First, the only being who could truly offer Jesus Christ the opportunity to rule over all the kingdoms was, in fact, Zeus/Jupiter. Indeed, it was his Pagan followers who actually ruled the Greco-Roman Empire, the largest and most powerful State on Earth at the time. No other individual had the power to offer rule over all the kingdoms except Zeus/Jupiter, king of the Greco-Roman gods of Mt. Olympus. As the Devil himself states:

 'All this I will give you,' he said, “if you will bow down and worship me.'

- Matthew 4:9-10

The devil...said to him, 'I will give you all their authority and splendor; it has been given to me, and I can give it to anyone I want to. If you worship me, it will all be yours.'

- Luke 4:5-8

Second, this mountain had a view of all the nations in the world, a view that was, by tradition, unique to Mt. Olympus, home of the most powerful gods in the entire world. No physical mountain could ever have had such a view, thus strongly suggesting that this particular mountain had no ordinary location, but was in reality the celestial Mt. Olympus itself. Third, the Devil managed took Jesus Christ from the desert to the mountain in a miraculous second of time and space. This suggests the Devil was a creature with vast supernatural powers, such as being able to instantly teleport a living Jew like Jesus even to the Heavenly heights of Mt. Olympus.

The devil led him up to a high place and showed him in an instant all the kingdoms of the world.

- Luke 4:5

Fundamental Judeo/Christian Symbolism

In conclusion, the evidence strongly suggest that Jesus Christ visited a very unique kind of mountain which exhibited supernatural qualities, much like that of Mt. Olympus. No other mountain could have had such a view of all the nations. No other mountain could have been travelled to in a split second of time and no other mountain was known to have had that much power over the kingdoms of earth except Mt. Olympus. Thus, the likelihood that the mountain where the Devil tempted Jesus was, in fact, Mt. Olympus is quite high, given everything. It is also quite likely that the Devil, was Zeus/Jupiter himself, the king of the Greco-Roman gods and ruler of Mt. Olympus. Instead of accepting Zeus/Jupiter's continued rule over Him or Israel, Jesus Christ chose to worship the one, true God of the Jews and to die on the cross for his refusal.

Name of the LORD in Hebrew

Jesus said to him, “Away from me, Satan! For it is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God, and serve Him alone.'" Then the devil left him, and angels came and attended him.

- Matthew 4:10-11

Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God and serve Him only.’”

- Luke 4:8

One should also remember that the Jews during the time of Jesus were suffering severe oppression at the hands of Roman occupiers, whose gods were that of Mt. Olympus. Because of the current Roman occupation of Israel, which had already proven to be just as cruel and tyrannical as the Greek occupation during the Age of the Maccabees, Jesus Christ had very good reason to look upon Mt. Olympus, and the Greco-Roman gods who resided there, as both the physical enemy of Israel and the spiritual enemy of God.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

The Judeo/Christian Riddle of the Seven Day Week

Why Seven Days?

No more logic supports seven days than, say eight or five, yet the seven-day week has resisted any and all attempt at change.

- Why the Week Has Seven Days, The 1988 Old Farmer's Almanac

Some believe that the theory of Seven Heavens and also the Seven days of Creation was originally in direct connection to the other planets and it all 'goes back to astrology.' Others go even further and contend that the Biblical legend of Seven days of Creation and the Judeo-Christian Seven-day week comes from Mesopotamia, possibly through the Biblical Patriarch Abraham who was once a citizen of that civilization.

Astrology has had a major influence on our weekly calendar in which it is responsible for the order of the days. Ancient Mesopotamian astrologers linked a planet-god to each hour of the day and then arranged them to their correct cosmological order. They used a seven-sided figure to keep track of the proper names of the hours and days in relation to the planet gods where each vertex was marked with a planet’s name in the proper order. Some Asiatic languages such as Hindi, Japanese and Korean have a similar relationship between the week days and the planets.

- The Days of the Week,

Why can't one say that ancient cultures were affected by the Seven-day week tradition of Adam and his descendants? There is no reason to deny the claim that Mesopotamia (or Sumeria) may have been influenced by other factors including the ancient Biblical Patriarchs who were renowned astronomers, astrologers, and time-keepers. Today's Hebrew calendar which is now at the year 5772 is considered one of the oldest known in the world. The date, 5772 is the number of years which have passed since God created the universe in Seven days. Wikipedia notes that 'the number 7 in Biblical references symbolically represented perfect completion, as in the seven-day week, the seven eyes and horns seen on the Lamb of God in The Book of Revelation, and the seventh in the generations of Adam: Lamech who was completely wicked, and Enoch who walked with God.' Some still claim otherwise:

It is a mistake to believe that our 7-day week has its origins in the command of the biblical YHWH, since the 7-day week is older than the Hebrews, having been used by the Sumerians and Babylonians.

- Hermetic Systems, Why Seven Days in a Week? by Peter Meyer

Apparently, ancient observers of the skies were only able to see seven planets in this solar system. Because of this they identified 'seven great heavenly objects and assumed each was floating in a separate heaven.' This is a highly dubious proposal and is just as absurd as claiming the age-old Seven-day week tradition which cuts across numerous cultures actually comes from God and the Bible. Interestingly enough, these seven celestial objects were the same across many different societies and religions. They were as follows:

1) Moon
2) Sun
3) Mercury
4) Venus
5) Mars
6) Jupiter
7) Saturn

This isn't the only order of sequence that the ancients utilized. A certain Muslim scholar named Ibn Kathir 'stated in his Tafsir that the Seven Heavens contained the moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn in that order.' In English at least, the Seven days of the week are partly named for these stellar bodies. One source notes in particular:

Most Latin-based languages derived the names of the seven days of the week from the Roman period where they related each day of the week with the seven planets, the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The English language has retained these names for Saturday, Sunday, and Monday, however the planet names for the other days of the week (Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday) were replaced by their equivalent Norse gods.

- The Days of the Week,

As of now, some scholars surmise this may imply the true origins of mankind's Sacred use of the number Seven as possibly derived from the Persian and Babylonian Pagan time-keeping systems. This simply cannot be true, mainly because of the original Book of Genesis, which specifically also mentions Seven Days of Creation. According to many, if not most, scholars of today this Biblical text dates from long before Persia and Babylonia ever became individual civilizations with their own distinct Pagan religion. Indeed, the prophet Abraham most probably practiced this system long before Moses wrote the Biblical story of a Seven-day Creation sometime around 1,450 BC.

The origin of the seven-day week is the religious significance that was placed on the seventh day by ancient cultures, including the Babylonian and Jewish civilizations.

- Seven Day Week, Wikipedia

For countless millennia, Jews have 'celebrated every seventh day, within a continuous cycle of seven-day weeks, as a holy day of rest from their work.' Even so, some believe that 'it is possible that the Hebrew origin of the seven-day week was lunar, and not perpetual,' meaning it was structured around 12 lunar cycles which occur each year. What seems the most likely point of origin is that this came directly from the Bible and from Hebrew traditions dating back thousands of years. At least one modern author agrees. Judeo-Christian researcher Frank C. Senn, in his book Christian Liturgy: Catholic and Evangelical, provides data which indicates the ancient Jews had been using the Seven day week for a long, long time. Specifically, he provides 'evidence of an early continuous use of a seven-day week; referring to the Jews during the Babylonian Captivity in the 6th century BCE, after the destruction of the Temple of Solomon.'  In other words, the Jewish use of the Seven Day Week was old when the Babylonian Empire was still very young.

All things considered, the majority of the evidence suggests that the Hebrew (Judeo-Christian) tradition of the Seven-day week is indeed unique and original to Judaism and Christianity- stemming from the ancient creation legend found in the first few pages of the Bible. A few scholars still try to suggest that the Biblical Seven-day week was adopted by the Jews from the surrounding Babylonian and Persian cultures. One source contends:

There are many different opinions as to how the history of the seven-day week came about, but the most common explanation is that the seven-day week seems to have originated when Babylonian astrologers assigned their planet gods to the days of the week around 700 BCE. The Romans later replaced these names with their own planet-gods.

- The Days of the Week,

Now traditional Judaism and Christianity date the Book of Genesis, and its Seven-day Creation legend, to 1,500 BC. Even the more modern scholars will claim that this Book couldn't possibly have been written after the rule of King David and Solomon around the year 1,000 BC. This means that, at a minimum, the Judeo-Christian Book of Genesis specifically describes a Divinely-ordained Seven-day week at least 300 years before the Pagan 'Babylonian astrologers'.

In summary, further evidence concerning King David's ancient kingdom indicates the Book of Genesis most definitely predates nearly all Pagan cultures and traditions by centuries. Also remember that this text is recording an age-old legend which was believed in and passed down at least 3,000 years previous to its writing. In addition, one should also note that Jewish mythology was mostly influenced by the Canaanite and Egyptian kingdoms which has no known tradition of the Seven-day week. Thus, the relationship between the number Seven and the Divine, between the Seven-day Week and God, could originate as far back as the ancient Patriarchs who supposedly lived nearly 6,000 to 4,000 years ago. In short, the legendary Adam and Eve, and their children, may be the actual founders of the Seven-day week and its key connection to the one, true God.

Historically, the Babylonian Pagans, probably through ancient Hebrew influence, celebrated 'celebrated the seventh day of each seven-day week as a holy day, just like the Jewish practice of Sabbath. However, Babylon's calendar did not consist of a perpetual series of Seven Day Week. The ancient Babylonians also had a monthly calendar which 'would always commence on the new moon.' Because of this, Babylon's months consisted of three seven day weeks, followed by a final week of varying length depending on the 12 annual lunar cycles. This tradition of Seven days can still be found 'in the contemporary and traditional Zoroastrian calendars that relates to the first, seventh and so on days of the month as pertaining to Ahura Mazda (God).' The Babylonian traditions concerning the number Seven also can be seen on a very old map, dating from the 6th Century BC. It depicts Babylon 'surrounded by a "bitter river" (Oceanus), with seven islands arranged around it so as to form a seven-pointed star.' The exact system of Babylonian time measurement can be described as follows:

Counting from the new moon, the Babylonians celebrated the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th as "holy-days", also called "evil days" (meaning "unsuitable" for prohibited activities). On these days officials were prohibited from various activities and common men were forbidden to "make a wish", and at least the 28th was known as a "rest-day".[citation needed] On each of them, offerings were made to a different god and goddess. Tablets from the sixth-century B.C. reigns of Cyrus the Great and Cambyses indicate these dates were sometimes approximate. The [lunar cycle] of 29 or 30 days basically contained three seven-day weeks, and a final week of eight or nine days inclusive, breaking the continuous seven-day cycle.

- Seven Day Week, Wikipedia

There are also other cultures and empires which utilized the Seven Day Week and Rome was one of the them. At first, the early Romans 'traditionally used the eight-day nundinal cycle, but after the adoption of the Julian calendar, in the time of Augustus, the seven-day week came into use.' For a time, the Seven-day week and the eight-day system 'coexisted, but by the time the week was officially adopted by Constantine in AD 321' the Eight-day week had ceased to be used. Remember, as noted earlier the naming of the 'days of the week with the Sun, the Moon, and the five planets visible to the naked eye dates to the Roman era (2nd century).'

For reasons still somewhat mysterious, which may not seem so mysterious to believers in the Judeo-Christian Creator God, the Seven-day week also developed independently in the east and the Asian cultures of China, Japan, and India. To be specific, 'the earliest known reference in Chinese writings to a seven-day week is attributed to Fan Ning, who lived in the late 4th century in the Jin Dynasty.' It can also be found centuries later in 'Ceylonese or Central Asian Buddhist monk Bu Kong of the 7th century (Tang Dynasty).' This Chinese tradition of Seven days and Seven planets 'was soon brought to Japan by the Japanese monk Kobo Daishi.' Some texts which survived over the centuries 'show the seven-day system in use in Heian Japan as early as 1007.' In Japan, at least, 'the seven-day system was kept in use for astrological purposes until its promotion to a full-fledged Western-style calendrical basis during the Meiji era. In India, which practiced the polytheistic Hindu religion, 'the seven-day week may have been in use during the Vedic Period.' This remains in dispute, although one Hindu text called the Garga, which dates to the 1st century BC. 'refers to the seven-day week, Sunday to Saturday.' Regardless, of the specifics, it seems that, through Divine guidance, even the Pagan nations of Asia adopted the  clumsy, awkward, Seven-day week as their own to finally culminate in the international Seven-day week of the 21st century.

Again, Why Seven?
An extremely ancient Judeo-Christian source for the Divine Seven-day week is not so hard to accept considering how awkward a number it is to calculate time, both long-term and short term. To demonstrate their ignorance as to how arbitrary and just plain odd the Seven-day week tradition is, one website actually (and mistakenly) claims the following:

It [the Seven-day week] provides a clear method of representing dates and times to avoid misinterpretation of data transferred between countries with different conventions for writing numeric dates and times.

- The Days of the Week,

Nothing could be further from the truth. Think about it. 1 week of 7 days is 168 hours, 10,080 minutes, and 604,800 seconds. These are all extremely clumsy, mathematically useless numbers. As predicted, this tends to show that the Seven Day week has nothing to do with organizational or structural perfection and is, in fact, completely arbitrary in terms of measurement precision. If the ancients wanted to be precise about numbers and calculations for the movement of the Heavens they could have used a system based upon 10, 100, 1,000 and so on. As one online source informs:

It is not immediately apparent why the seven-day week was selected by ancient cultures, rather than a week that included a number of days that was a factor of these numeral systems, such as a six-day or a twelve-day week, or a week that divided the lunation more accurately using a factor of these number systems, such as a five-day or ten-day week. There are no historical Jewish or Babylonian records that confirm that these cultures explicitly defined the seven-day week as a quarter of a lunation.

- Seven Day Week, Wikipedia

Over the course of the past 2,000 years, some radicals have been enraged at this God-given tradition of Seven days. There have even been two modern attempts at abolishing the Seven Day Week system. These coincided with attempts to abolish the Bible, Judaism, and Christianity as well. After the French Revolution, the new anti-Christian government of France called for 'a ten-day week with the introduction of the republican calendar in 1793.' Alas, this did not last long because what is historically called 'The Concordat of 1801, which re-established the Roman Catholic Church in France, also restored the seven-day week.' The Communists in the Soviet Union also attempted to get rid of the God-given Seven Day Week. This occurred in 1929 when the 'USSR discontinued the seven-day week for a five-day week, then a six-day week.' Even so, they never stopped using seven difrferent names for the days even when 'the work schedules were rotated in five- and six-day periods.'. So it should not be surprising that this new Soviet systems didn't catch on either and instead the Communist government reverted back to the Seven Day protocol. As Wikipedia records: 'the seven-day week was reintroduced on 27 June 1940.' The current situation in the 21st century can be summarized in the following manner:

The day of rest can vary for each culture and religion. According to the Jews, the Sabbath or Saturday is the day of rest and worship because it was on this day that God rested after creating the world. Most Christians mark Sunday as their day of rest and worship because Jesus rose from the dead on a Sunday. Muslims refer to Friday as their day of rest and worship because the Quran calls Friday a holy day or the “king of days”.Nowadays, both Saturday and Sunday are seen as days of rest, and some calendars show Monday as the first day of the week since it is the first day of the "work week"

One could tentatively conclude the actual reason the Seven Day week still exists is to commemorate the Hebrew Creator God who , according to Genesis, finished making all the Universe in just Seven Days. Indeed, this may be the only reason why the world doesn't have 1000 seconds, or 100 minutes, to the hour, perhaps translating into 10 hour days, and 10 day weeks. Logically speaking, it is far more likely that the ancient Pagans got this exact number Seven from the story in the Book of Genesis and not from the Seven Planets.

The seven-day week appears in the Creation story in the Book of Genesis, in the Hebrew Bible, where Elohim (God) is said to have created the heavens and the earth in six days and rested on the seventh (Genesis 1:1-2:3). In the Book of Exodus, the fourth of the ten commandments is to rest on the seventh day, the Sabbath, which can be seen as implicating a seven-day week social institution (Exodus 20:8-11).

- Seven Day Week, Wikipedia

Copying the prior tradition from Judaism, Christianity and Islam also adopted a 7 day week unit and imposed it upon all peoples they encountered and converted. They also allowed peasants and servants, even slaves, to rest from work every Seven Days, something other societies never really did on their own.

The Jews also adopted a seven-day cycle, based on the time it took the Lord to create the universe as reported in Genesis. A new wrinkle in their week was the Sabbath, a day set aside for rest. This was the first time a culture had invented a holiday that occurred on a regular basis, unrelated to natural phenomena.

- Why the Week Has Seven Days, The 1988 Old Farmer's Almanac

Indeed, in many ways, the Sabbath proved to be a merciful institution for all those who labored hard and long throughout Judeo-Christian history. Now, because of the implacable power of this Biblical tradition, Most of the known world follows suit. Two different source relates:

Historically, a number of other cultural groups, such as Christians and Muslims, have continued to regularly hold religious events on a specific day within each seven-day week.

- Seven Day Week, Wikipedia

The seven-day week is used by the majority of the world and has become the international standard as specified by the International Organization for Standardization.

- The Days of the Week,

This lack of any logical connection between the various systems of time-measurement logically leads to the premise that the Seven Day Week comes straight from the Judeo-Christian Bible, not from so-called Pagan sources. Thus, through sheer of force of will, this ancient Hebrew tradition of Seven Days, has triumphed and has now come to dominate the international system of time organization. Christianity has proceeded to calculate time with Seven Day weeks for nearly 2,000 years. Specifically, one source writes:

The seven-day weekly cycle is reputed to have remained unbroken in Europe for almost two millennia, despite changes to the Alexandrian, Julian, and Gregorian calendars. The date of Easter Sunday can be traced back through numerous computistic tables to an Ethiopic copy of an early Alexandrian table beginning with the Easter of 311 AD.

- Seven Day Week, Wikipedia

To summarize the history involved, the current contention of Persian or Babylonian origins of the Seven-day week tradition that in time influenced the Jews is probably the exact opposite of historical reality. The Jews, and their mythology, are the true founders of the Seven-day tradition which has now passed on to both Christianity and Islam centuries ago, marking the number Seven, for whatever reason, as a Holy and perhaps even, Divine numeral for all three religions.

An Analysis of Biblical References to Purgatory Featuring Four Examples from the Gospel of Matthew

The LORD is my shepherd, I shall not want. He makes me lie down in green pastures. He leads me beside quiet waters. He renews my soul. He guides me in the paths of righteousness for His name’s sake. Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for You are with me. Your rod and Your staff, they comfort me.

- Psalm 23:1-4

The Bible Mentions Purgatory Many, Many Times
What does the Protestant nearly always say, with a sneer or a frown?  Their typical knee-jerk response will usually include the fact that the actual Latin-based word 'Purgatory' does not appear anywhere in Scriptures. Almost like clock-work, Mr. or Ms. 'Christian not Catholic' will inevitably contend it's a lie, saying something like- 'The Bible never mentions Purgatory, therefore it doesn't exist.' Well, the anti-Catholic opponents of Purgatory may continue to ignore the elephant in the middle of the room all they want, but that doesn't mean it's going away. In fact, millions upon millions of Christians have believed in the Purgatory elephant for nearly 2,000 years. Before that, Jews did, and as it stands today both Judaism and more than half of the world's baptized Christians continue to believe in Purgatory, regardless of the hysterical denials heard from the Protestants.

The fact of the matter is that many scholars have produced a growing body of evidence proving that the Hebrew word Sheol, which is mentioned over 55 times in the Old Testament, and the Latin word Purgatory MEAN the SAME THING. Therefore, the Bible does not mention Purgatory by name simply because it was originally written in Hebrew (Sheol) and Greek (Hades) and not Latin (Purgatorio). Due to the differing Biblical languages in question, Purgatory is referred to in Scriptures as either Sheol or Hades. Listed below are four different on-line authorities who have all come to the exact same conclusion about the actual meaning of the words Sheol in Hebrew, Hades in Greek, Purgatorio in Latin, and Purgatory in English:

The word Purgatory is derived from the Latin Purgatorio, ("cleansing," "purifying") in Hebrew it's Sheol.

- Purgatory - Biblical and Patristic Insight,

“Sheol” is the Hebrew name for what could be Hades, Hell, Purgatory, or a well of souls-a holding tank.

- Book Review: Sheol Has Opened,

I'm going to suggest that what the Latin word, "Purgatorio" signifies, that is the place where we are purged of disordered self-love, the Hebrew word, "Sheol" can also signify or denote. Just like the Greek word "Hades" can denote it. Three words, perhaps with the same reality, with proper distinctions made.

- Purgatory: Holy Fire, by SCOTT HAHN,

Some Scriptural scholars claim Sheol or the Netherworld was the Jewish name for Purgatory...The evidence is...significant that Sheol signifies Purgatory. At the very least, ancient Israelites believed in a place or state where you would go when you die that was temporary, and neither heaven nor hell.

- Chapter 23 -- Purgatory,

Tragically, more than few Biblical scholars mistakenly insist the two words in question, namely Hades and/or Sheol must always translate into the English word Hell. This woefully misleading replacement of the words Hades and Sheol with the English term Hell began with the 1611 King James Version of the Bible  Unfortunately, the Protestant Biblical Scholars have boldly continued in their deceptive usage of the English designation Hell when replacing the original Greek/Hebrew term called Hades/Sheol. Knowing full well the word Hades/Sheol actually refers to something very, very different from Hell, they silently carry on with their deliberate mistranslation of nearly every Protestant Bible still being published today. In the vain hope of denying Purgatory for the next 1,000 years, certain Protestant authorities have conspired to leave most readers of Protestant Scriptures in the dark about the issue. Sadly, the vast majority of God-fearing Protestants will never be made aware of the real meaning behind the words Hades and Hades. Their naive certainties about the evils of Catholicism destine most of them to an ill-informed Protestant Christian faith which has been founded, not upon zealous scholarship or pious reasoning, but upon generations of bigoted ignorance concerning the many Biblical truths of Purgatory.

First of all, Hell was considered a place of eternal damnation, while Sheol and Hades were mostly viewed as somewhat miserable, but temporary spiritual realms of suffering. Hell, and its never-ending duration, could not possibly be the correct translation of either Hades or Sheol, which were temporary abodes of the dead. Indeed, the New Testament shows that Jesus never uses these two terms to describe Hell. Instead He refers to Hell, the land of eternal damnation, as Gehenna every single time. Christ does mention the Sheol, or at least its upper regions, using a particular set of words called the Bosom of Abraham (Paradise). This spiritual haven for the righteous was deemed to be eternal so it most definitely was not Heaven, but certainly was not Hell (Gehenna in Hebrew). This specifically Hebrew land of the deceased could be compared to some of the highest levels of Purgatory where there is far less suffering than way below. Indeed, these peaceful, yet shadowy, regions of the dead are, according to legend, presumed to be located fairly close to the Divine light of Heaven.

Given the actual definition of the word, any New Testament mention of the Greek term Hades should simply be seen as yet another Biblical reference to Purgatory. As with Christian Purgatory, Hades traditionally referred to a temporary Greco-Roman land of the  Gentile dead, which inevitably led to Pagan Heaven (Elysium). After Christianity finally adopted Latin as the official language of the Holy Bible and the Church, the original Biblical names such as Hades and Sheol eventually became known as Purgatory- defined as a temporary spiritual abode for most Christians which preceded entry into Heaven. Thus the formula: Sheol = Hades = Purgatory is both historically and metaphorically correct. Over time, however, the Jews stopped referring to their version of Purgatory as Sheol, calling it Gehenna instead. The Sheol, basically remained the same centrally-located place stretching from the uppers levels which bordered Heaven, to the pit of Hell at the very bottom. The Sheol was now seen as having two distinct regions- an upper one meant only for the righteous called Paradise (Bosom of Abraham), along with a much lower region called Gehenna. This particular region which consisted of the lowest depths within the entire Sheol was where the wicked spirits and sinful souls of the condemned were punished, perfected and purified. Thus, the  Biblical words which define this unique three-tiered system of the after-life in English, Greek, and Hebrew reads as follows:

TEXT: Salvation + Redemption + Damnation = Language and Religion
HOLY BIBLE: Heaven + Purgatory + Hell = English Christianity
NEW TESTAMENT: Elysium + Hades + Tartarus  = Greek Paganism
OLD TESTAMENT: Gan Eden + Sheol/Gehenna + Gehenna = Hebrew Judaism

SOURCE DOCUMENT: Purgatory +  Hades + Sheol/Gehenna = English + Greek + Hebrew  

Deniers of Purgatory should always remember that both the Jews, and the Greco-Roman Gentiles who ruled them, basically agreed that the spiritual world consisted of a three-layer system of the after-life, with the vast majority of souls finding themselves in what is now called Purgatory (Hades/Sheol). The reason behind this similarity in religious thought, was due to their shared sense of logic and reason- the simple common sense underlying these two doctrines. Both Jew and Gentile recognized that, rather than being total Sinners or perfect Saints,  most people were a combination of both good and evil which required some, but not never-ending punishment, after death. Indeed, Jews still believe in a version of Purgatory even today and will sometimes call it by that name rather than by the Hebrew expression Sheol/Gehenna. Even so, the English term Purgatory, derived from the Latin Purgatorio, remains a mostly Catholic phrase which basically means the same thing.

Those who still hysterically refuse to accept the existence of Purgatory, and insist that Jesus Christ would most definitely  have referred to such a place by name, should read their Gospels again, as well as their Old Testament. When studied carefully enough, and if read with an open mind, the four Gospels really do contain literally dozens of references to Purgatory. One just needs to look. Here are just a few examples found in the Gospel of Matthew where Jesus mentions Purgatory directly:

QUOTE #1: Take My yoke upon you and learn from Me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For My yoke is easy and My burden is light. (Matthew 11:29-30)
INTERPRETATION #1: Jesus most certainly isn't indicating either Heaven or Hell- thus making Purgatory the only logical possibility. Why? First of all. there is neither yoke or burden in Heaven. Secondly, rest is only needed for the dead ghosts of Purgatory not the living and immortal souls in Heaven), Finally, the yoke and burdens of Heaven could only come from God the Father, just as the eternal yoke/burdens of Hell would never be seen as 'light' and 'easy'. Therefore, Jesus must be thinking about the finite, limited, temporary yoke and burdens of Purgatory/Hades/Sheol.

PHRASE #1= Actual Meaning
My yoke upon you = The spiritual burdens of Purgatory, for there would be no yoke in Heaven
Learn from Me = In Purgatory you will receive instruction in the perfect wisdom and knowledge of God and Heaven
I am gentle and humble of heart = I will sentence and punish sinners to Purgatory rather than Hell
Rest for your Souls = The Assurance that Purgatory is temporary, because Hell would mean no rest for your Soul
My yoke is easy = The limited burdens of Purgatory pale in comparison to an eternity in Hell
My burden is light = The sufferings of Purgatory are nothing compared to the punishments of Hell

QUOTE #2: Therefore anyone who sets aside one of the least of these commands and teaches others accordingly will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever practices and teaches these commands will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. (Matthew 5:17)
INTERPRETATION #2: Because of the unfairness and injustice of allowing both perfect Saints and imperfect Sinners into Heaven immediately, the only reasonable solution is to send the sinners to Purgatory first, before Heaven. Given the holiness and goodness of only a very few individuals who merit Heaven (Martyrs, children, charity workers), sinners who disobeyed God.

PHRASE #2 = Actual Meaning
Anyone who sets aside one of the least of these commands = Even the most minor of sins will result in Purgatory. By tradition, everyone who has ever had any sex outside of marriage will be automatically disqualified from any instantaneous admittance into the Kingdom of Heaven.
Will be called least = Will be sentenced to Purgatory first, where they will be ruled by others, and then have a lower status afterwards in Heaven, and a permanent dark past which can never be erased.
Whoever practices and teaches these commands = Very few mortals ever lead the perfect, sinless life deemed necessary to get into Heaven immediately
Will be called great = Will be given a more immediate entry into Heaven and a higher status compared to others who went to Purgatory first

QUOTE #3: Do not fear those who kill the body but are unable to kill the soul; but rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in Hell. (Matthew 10:28)
INTERPRETATION #3: Jesus is basically telling them: 'Don't fear the punishments they may inflict upon you in Purgatory for your resurrection is assured eventually. Instead, you must fear God the Father who can condemn to Hell forever and then refuse to resurrect you at the End of Time.'

PHRASE #3 = Actual Meaning
Those who kill the body but are unable to kill the soul = Sin leads to physical death, but Purgatory saves your soul from the Devil and will lead to eventual resurrection of your body in Heaven
Destroy both soul and body in Hell.= Eternal damnation leads to your soul burning in Hell and the resurrection of your body being cancelled forever.

Hell = Destruction of both Body and Soul upon Death
Purgatory = Inability to Kill the Soul after Bodily Death

QUOTE 4#: He who receives you receives Me, and he who receives Me receives Him who sent Me. He who receives a prophet in the name of a prophet shall receive a prophet’s reward, and he who receives a righteous man in the name of a righteous man shall receive a righteous man’s reward. And whoever in the name of a disciple gives to one of these little ones even a cup of cold water to drink, truly I say to you, he shall not lose his reward. (Matthew 10:40-42)
INTERPRETATION #4: Jesus is obviously describing an actual hierarchy of rewards for good deeds in the after-life. This provides ample evidence for Purgatory where the punishments would be different for each sinner, differing in length of time depending on the severity of sin, but always culminating in Heaven, for Jesus promises he 'shall not lose his reward'. At the same time, those with more righteous, or more frequent, good deeds would receive a lesser punishment in Purgatory and gain access to Heaven quicker than others.

PHRASE #4 = Actual Meaning
He who receives you receives Me = Living a good life pleasing to Me, Jesus, will lead to Purgatory thus saving you from Hell.
He who receives Me receives Him who sent Me = Living a perfect life pleasing to Me and Him, God, may lead directly to Heaven or a very short and painless sentence of Purgatory.
A Prophet's Reward = Possible sentence to Heaven or less probable sentence to Purgatory for the shortest period of time.
A Righteous Man's Reward = A possible to probable sentence of Purgatory for a short period of time
[A Man who] Gives...even a cup of cold water to drink [Reward] = A Soul-Saving Sentence of Purgatory, rather than Hell forever, for a long/longer period of time,
Truly I say to you, he shall not lose his reward = Even a lengthy sentence of Purgatory for the longest time will always end with the reward of Heaven. The terminology concerning the loss or gain of 'his reward' clearly implies some sinners win (Purgatory) while some sinners lose (Hell). Also, the words 'he shall not lose' obviously denotes a future, rather than immediate, garnering of 'his reward'.  By definition, a 'reward' which comes at a future time can never be a reference to Heaven (or Hell) which occurs instantly after God's Judgement. Instead, this specific Gospel phrase blatantly alludes to Purgatory, including its guaranteed Heavenly pay-off which occurs after a certain period of time, either sooner or later.

As can be seen in the above analysis, the existence of Purgatory appears to be taken for granted by the Gospels, as if the authors assumed that believers were already familiar with the concept of limited versus eternal punishment. In fact, the repeated use of the word Gehenna reveals the truth of Purgatory in a rather obvious manner. In short, Christ specifically warns about eternal punishment almost as if the far more common expectation of temporary punishment in Gehenna was already a popular belief among the people. Thus, whenever Jesus refers to Gehenna, both temporary and eternal punishments are assumed because that's how Judaism designated both Purgatory and Hell, both then and now. To this very day, Judaism teaches that, for most of the dead, the time spent in Gehenna was typically for a certain duration. They also predict that Gehenna may be never-ending for the very worst of sinners, just like Christian Hell. Here is the understanding depicted below:

RELIGIOUS TERMINOLOGY: Christian Designation = Jewish Designation
REALM OF TEMPORARY SUFFERING: Purgatory = Gehenna (upper sections)
REALM OF ETERNAL SUFFERING: Hell = Gehenna (lower sections)
REALM OF TEMPORARY & ETERNAL SUFFERING : Purgatory + Hell = Gehenna (upper sections & lower sections)

One should remember the existence of a temporary spiritual realm, where sinners experience a limited amount of suffering, and which always precedes the bliss of Paradise/Heaven, originated within Judaism long before Christ was born. Thus, by the time Jesus and His adult ministry had begun, Purgatory (Sheol) was already considered a basic tenet of Judaism, most especially among the Rabbis (Pharisees). Logically speaking, there appears to be no particular reason why Jesus, who was a devout Jew, would ever change the traditional, three-tiered system of the Jewish After-Life. Considering the kindness, patience, and forgiving nature displayed by Jesus Christ, it seems extremely unlikely He would advocate an after-life which sent all sinners to Hell, with only the perfect believer ever being allowed into Heaven. One must think carefully, for Rabbi Jesus would never deliberately establish an unjust, unmerciful, irrational dualistic system of Heaven and/or Hell being the only spiritual destinations for the dead. With the exception of the ancient Commandments related to adultery, divorce, and the Sabbath day, Christ ended up changing very little about the Old Laws of Moses. Given that background, why would He ever drastically alter the common people's God-fearing beliefs concerning the Jewish After-Life ? The answer is He would not change them, and the truth is He did not change them, and the reality is He will never change them. The Judeo/Christian doctrine of Purgatory simply makes too much sense to actually disbelieve. The inherent logic of Purgatory is imbued with far too much common wisdom to ever truly deny or oppose. In conclusion, the proof of its continuous existence lies plainly written in the Gospels as the four previous examples clearly show, with further proofs just waiting to be discovered by those seeking the truth about God. Tragically, millions of Protestants will continue to vehemently deny the reality of Purgatory (Sheol), preferring instead to wallow in their self-assured ignorance rather than accept the 'dangerous' truth about God and Christ.